The Technology Portal
Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is the collection of techniques, skills, methods, and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation. Technology can be the knowledge of techniques, processes, and the like, or it can be embedded in machines to allow for operation without detailed knowledge of their workings. Systems (e. g. machines) applying technology by taking an input, changing it according to the system's use, and then producing an outcome are referred to as technology systems or technological systems.
The simplest form of technology is the development and use of basic tools. The prehistoric discovery of how to control fire and the later Neolithic Revolution increased the available sources of food, and the invention of the wheel helped humans to travel in and control their environment. Developments in historic times, including the printing press, the telephone, and the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact freely on a global scale.
Technology has many effects. It has helped develop more advanced economies (including today's global economy) and has allowed the rise of a leisure class. Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products known as pollution and deplete natural resources to the detriment of Earth's environment. Innovations have always influenced the values of a society and raised new questions in the ethics of technology. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, and the challenges of bioethics.
Philosophical debates have arisen over the use of technology, with disagreements over whether technology improves the human condition or worsens it. Neo-Luddism, anarcho-primitivism, and similar reactionary movements criticize the pervasiveness of technology, arguing that it harms the environment and alienates people; proponents of ideologies such as transhumanism and techno-progressivism view continued technological progress as beneficial to society and the human condition.
The AACS encryption key controversy
, also known as the AACS cryptographic key controversy
, arose in April 2007 when the Motion Picture Association of America
and the Advanced Access Content System
Licensing Administrator, LLC (AACS LA) began issuing demand letters
to websites publishing a 128-bit
number, represented in hexadecimal
as 09 F9 11 02 9D 74 E3 5B D8 41 56 C5 63 56 88 C0
(commonly referred to as 09 F9
), which is one of the cryptographic keys
for HD DVDs
and Blu-ray Discs
. The letters demanded the immediate removal of the key and any links to it, citing the anti-circumvention provisions of the U.S. Digital Millennium Copyright Act
(DMCA). In response to widespread internet postings of the key, the AACS LA issued various press statements, praising those websites that complied with their requests as acting in a "responsible manner", warning that "legal and technical tools" were adapting to the situation. The controversy was further escalated in early May 2007, when aggregate news site Digg
received a DMCA cease and desist
notice and then removed numerous articles on the matter and banned
users reposting the information. This sparked what some describe as a digital revolt, or "cyber-riot", in which users posted and spread the key throughout the internet en masse
. The AACS LA described this situation as an "interesting new twist".
In this month
- 17 June 1946 – The first telephone call using the Mobile Telephone Service, a precursor to the cellular phone, is made in St. Louis, Missouri
- 20 June 2003 – The Wikimedia Foundation (logo pictured), the non-profit that operates Wikipedia and its sister projects, is founded in St. Petersburg, Florida
- 28 June 1972 – Atari, a pioneer in arcade games, home video game consoles, and home computers, is founded as Atari, Inc.
- 28 June 2006 – The Series of tubes speech is delivered by then-United States Senator Ted Stevens to describe the Internet and defend the Senator's opposition to network neutrality
Did you know...
was a German Lutheran mathematician
, and a key figure in the 17th century astronomical revolution. He is best known for his eponymous laws of planetary motion
, codified by later astronomers based on his works Astronomia nova
, Harmonices Mundi
, and Epitome of Copernican Astronomy
. Before Kepler, planets' paths were computed by combinations of the circular motions of the celestial orbs
. After Kepler, astronomers shifted their attention from orbs
—paths that could be represented mathematically as an ellipse
. Kepler's laws also provided one of the foundations for Isaac Newton
's theory of universal gravitation
. During his career Kepler was a mathematics teacher at a Graz
seminary school, an assistant to Tycho Brahe
, the court mathematician to Emperor Rudolf II
, a mathematics teacher in Linz
, and an adviser to General Wallenstein
. He also did fundamental work in the field of optics
and helped to legitimize the telescopic discoveries of his contemporary Galileo Galilei
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